Sunday, August 23, 2020
Question: Examine about the Impact of Hazards at PACT Construction Company. Answer: Presentation Perils have now become a piece of pretty much every industry. The development business isn't any unique. There are various dangers present in the development business, which are extremely dangerous for the lives of many (Bahn, 2013). This is a result of such reasons it is significant that the particular business take an appropriate consideration of its dangers, so that, the hazard level could be limited. To comprehend the subject unmistakably, a conversation of certain risks in the picked association would be a bunch approach to continue with. In this unique situation, the student has picked the PACT Construction as its association, which is in Australia. The principle motivation behind this task is to examine the distinguished perils at the working environment of the picked organization. In addition, the investigation would likewise give some exit plan to control the recognized dangers, so that, it couldn't cause a lot of seriousness at the working environment. Portrayal of the association The picked organization is in the development business in Australia. The organization was established in the year 2003. Presently, the organization has roughly around 51-200 workers. The organization has its specialities in Designing Construction, Project Management and Cost Planning. The organization has gotten a few honors too, for example, the esteemed development grant from the Master Builders Association (MBA) (Mills, Smith Love, 2012). Meaning of a peril A danger can be characterized as a potential asset that can damage or influence the strength of an individual (Scheer et al., 2014). Danger and hazard are near one another in significance; be that as it may, they vary to one another obviously. For instance, in a room where there is a spill of water, it is dangerous in the event that somebody put their legs on the spilled water. The one would descend; in any case, if the specific zone is secured by mean of some physical obstruction, the hazard would be diminished while the danger would at present be there. A danger is never sheltered until and except if any endeavors are given to diminish the degree of hazard in it. Work environment condition The PACT development is a development based organization that not just includes its investment in the development works however it likewise structures the development plan. In such associations, perils isn't just limited to the building locales just however it is additionally found in places where the crude materials are kept. It is hard to organize the dangers accessible at the work environment. Be that as it may, to legitimize the necessity of the undertaking the two-chose perils in the picked association are as per the following (Bahn, 2012): Lifting of crude materials by crane at the building site Commotion The working environment condition is partitioned into two areas, for example, the official premises and the building destinations. The official reason is for the official people, for example, those deals with the back end activities. The backend tasks incorporate different activities, for example, the stock upkeep, client assistance, forefront administrations, IT administrations and so forth. Building destinations essentially manages the development procedure, which is taken part by different workforce, for example, the crane administrator, substantial engine machines administrator, site bosses, security officials, works and so forth. The building destinations used to be profoundly dirtied with the different assets of contamination, for example, the clamor contamination. The commotions of crane activity and the activity of substantial machines cause the sound contamination to occur at the building destinations (Golmohammadi et al., 2013). Portrayal and grouping of distinguished dangers Lifting of crude materials is the most regular asset of hazard, which happens in light of the fact that it is finished with the assistance of crane. There are cases, which give the clear of such dangers. One of the latest instances of such episodes is the fall of a whole crane on the some piece of the territory, which is prominently known as Al-Haram (Rahman et al., 2017). Al-Haram is mainstream among the Muslims. This is one such case, which expresses the danger of risk present at the building locales. One of the most risky places in the picked association is the building destinations where it utilizes the crane to lift the necessary crude materials. This is unsafe in light of the fact that it is an asset to hazard. Clamor is the other asset to chance in the picked association. This is less clear truly; notwithstanding, it is exceptionally obvious with the representatives who have been in long haul cooperation with the organization. It is exceptionally damaging to hearing capacities. It slowly creates with the progression of time. Clamor contamination is profoundly obvious at the building locales, which is made by different methods, for example, the cranes, the quantities of works working at the destinations and the other overwhelming engine machines (Seixas et al., 2012). The most risky of the considerable number of clamors are the commotions made by the overwhelming engine machines that utilization to process the blending of concretes with sands. These all procedures are the imperative for the development procedure. It is likewise not doable to lessen the degree of hazard in such cases, as the substantial engine machines are required for stirring up the crude materials. Lifting of crude materials is dangerous on the grounds that it can whenever tumbled downward on somebody. The danger of the peril can be forestalled, for example, via cautiously taking care of the lifting procedure. Nonetheless, conditions are there that even test the hazard counteraction technique suggested at the building destinations. The tumbling down of the whole crane on the some piece of the Al-Haram is a decent proof of such realities (Rahman et al., 2017). Building locales can have decreased dangers, which is a lot of conceivable with the usage of security parameters or the execution of certain codes of practices at the work environment. Be that as it may, it is never down to earth to totally invalidate the impact of danger, which is available at the work environment of PACT Constructions working locales. Clamor is unsafe in light of the fact that it would hamper the listening capacities of the individuals who work at the building locales (Hussin, Rahman Memon, 2013). It is a long procedure; be that as it may, it is extremely fundamental since it turns into an explanation behind a physical harm in human body. Strategies that assisted with distinguishing the dangers The dangers were related to the assistance of data gave by some outer body, for example, the Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA) (Friend Kohn, 2014). OSHA is essentially focussed on giving a sound workplace where representatives could work under a profoundly made sure about environment. They do give a lot of dangers that are plausible with the distinctive business in Australia. The data on the dangers provided by OSHA has assisted with recognizing the two dangers, which have been talked about before in this investigation. Different ways have additionally assisted with social affair data on the perils present at the diverse building destinations of the PACT Construction Company. Such various ways are as per the following: Working manuals on various hardware and supplies utilized at the building locales Records produced on past instances of wounds, for example, the records provided by OSHA 300 and 301 logs (Reese, 2015) Pay reports and records of Workers Existing security abilities of the association These all techniques have assisted with social event distinctive data on perils. The reports provided by OSHA and the record of wounds in the past have helped gigantically in distinguishing the two dangers that have just been examined in this investigation. Danger control utilizing the Hierarchy of Control) The referenced Hierarchy of Control is a decent weapon to control the dangers at the work environment and to decrease its unfriendly consequences for the workforce. The pecking order of control measures is partitioned into six unique methodology, for example, the follows: Disposal of the peril The end of risk isn't completely feasible. In any case, endeavors can be given to lessen its unfriendly impact on the workforces. The one activity can be accepted, for example, the determination of a profoundly gifted crane administrator. The human asset division of the PACT Construction needs to overhaul their enlistment standards for the crane administrators. The profoundly experienced crane administrators should just be chosen (Drfler, Simpson-Porco Bullo, 2016). Giving some obstruction to diminish the hazard The utilization of elective choice may assist with decreasing the impact of danger somewhat. This is a generally excellent choice for some, risk related avoidance. Nonetheless, in the picked case it isn't exceptionally practical. In such cases, it is prudent to receive some impact lessening procedure, for example, the utilization of substantial cranes. This would decrease the danger of meeting with a mishap as the heap lifting ability would then be upgraded. Clamor decrease is beyond the realm of imagination; it is will undoubtedly occur. In any case, PACT Construction can start the wellbeing registration battle on quarterly premise. Laborers can be urged to go to such examination battles to know the status of their hearing capacity (Drfler, Simpson-Porco Bullo, 2016). Peril segregation Isolation is another successful procedure, which could assist with decreasing the hazard level of risk. For example, putting the boisterous overwhelming machines in an encased glass chamber on the off chance that it is conceivable. This would keep the sound from making a trip to the laborers. So also, laborers ought to be carefully requested to be away from the activity territory while the lifting of materials is under procedure. This would likewise decrease the hazard level (Drfler, Simpson-Porco Bullo, 2016). Utilizing the building controls-Using the designing device, hazard level can likewise be decreased. For example, choosing the remote territories for developments. This would get the activity far from the populace. Consequently, this would lessen the hazard level of the perils, which is in high nearness while working inside the populace (Drfler, Simpson-Porco Bullo, 2016). Utilizing the managerial framework The hazard level could likewise be diminished by actualizing a few changes in the authoritative practices. This would incorporate yet are not restricted to su
Friday, August 21, 2020
The United States of America has experienced numerous issues because of the expansion in measure of firearm proprietors which has added to the ascent of violations and issues that we face today. Our country has around 65 million individuals who own an alarming 240 million guns. This silly measure of guns in our country makes a requirement for weapon control. Firearm control laws, for example, the Brady Act can help take care of weapon issues and make America a more secure spot to live. The Brady Act and other firearm control laws are viable answers for our weapon control needs. Since the law was begun in February of 1994, crime percentages identified with guns have fallen 25%. The Brady Act completes a few things for firearm control. To begin with, it makes a hanging tight period for each acquisition of a gun. This holding up period is of extraordinary centrality for a couple of reasons. The holding up period which goes before the offer of the gun gives the potential criminal time to chill; in this way the odds of planned violations are decreased. Additionally during the holding up period, an individual verification is required for the individual attempting to buy the gun. In the event that the individual verification shows that the buyer has been in jail or on the off chance that they have even one wrongdoing, no deal will occur. The Assault Rifle Ban precludes assembling, bringing in, and individuals from claiming self-loader attack weapons. On the off chance tha t an individual might want to claim an attack rifle they should accomplish a specific permit and they additionally will be required to have a historical verification like th... Firearm Control Laws Decrease Crime Rates Essay - Constituton Bil The United States of America has experienced numerous issues because of the expansion in measure of firearm proprietors which has added to the ascent of wrongdoings and issues that we face today. Our country has around 65 million individuals who own an alarming 240 million guns. This absurd measure of guns in our country makes a requirement for weapon control. Weapon control laws, for example, the Brady Act can help take care of firearm issues and make America a more secure spot to live. The Brady Act and other firearm control laws are powerful answers for our weapon control needs. Since the law was begun in February of 1994, crime percentages identified with guns have fallen 25%. The Brady Act completes a few things for firearm control. In the first place, it makes a hanging tight period for each acquisition of a gun. This holding up period is of incredible criticalness for a couple of reasons. The holding up period which goes before the offer of the gun gives the potential criminal time to chill; accordingly the odds of planned violations are diminished. Likewise during the holding up period, a record verification is required for the individual attempting to buy the gun. On the off chance that the historical verification shows that the buyer has been in jail or on the off chance that they have even one crime, no deal will happen. The Assault Rifle Ban disallows assembling, bringing in, and individuals from claiming self-loader attack weapons. In the event that an i ndividual might want to claim an ambush rifle they should achieve a specific permit and they additionally will be required to have a personal investigation like th...
Tuesday, July 7, 2020
In this chapter, I will discuss types, causes and effects of delay of project in the construction industry. Besides that, I will also discuss the method to minimize the delays happening in construction industry 2.2 Type of Delay In construction industry, there are the categories of delays used in determining delay damage as shown in table 2.1 Figure 2.1 Types of Delay 2.2.1 Excusable delays Excusable delay as define a delay that is due to an unforeseeable event beyond the contractorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s or the subcontractorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s control. Usually, based on common general provisions in public agency specifications, delay resulting from the following events would be considered excusable such as fires, floods, owner-directed changes, errors and omissions in the contract drawing, unusually severe weather and etc. Excusable delays can be further classified into excusable with compensation and excusable without compensation. 22.214.171.124 Excusable with compensation Compensation delays are caused by the owner or the owners agents. An example of this would be the drawings late release from the owners architect. An excusable, compensable delay normally leads to a schedule extension and exposes the owner to financial damages claimed by the contractor. In this scenario, the contractor incurs additional indirect costs for both extended field office and home office overhead and unabsorbed home office overhead. 126.96.36.199 Excusable delays without compensation Non-compensable delays are caused by third parties or incidents beyond the control of both the owner and the contractor. Examples typically include acts of God, unusual weather, strikes, fires, acts of government in its sovereign capacity, etc. In this case, the contractor is normally entitled to claim extension of time but no compensation for delay damages 2.2.2 Non-excusable delays Non-excusable delays are cause by lack of performance of the contractor on the construction project. This delay can be cause by underestimates of productivity, improper project planning and scheduling, poor site management and supervision, wrong construction methods, equipment breakdowns, unreliable subcontractors or suppliers. Therefore, it is contractor responsibilities to continue their work with no entitlement to claim for extension of time or delay damages until they completed the project. For instance, a contractor failure to provide an adequate material to completed their job. 2.2.3 Concurrent Delay Concurrent delay is a problem that happening on most of the construction industry project. This issue arises when two or more delaying event at the same time in a project cannot complete on time. In this situation, both owner and contractor are responsible for the delay. Commonly concurrent delays which involve any two or more excusable delays result in extension of time. When excusable with compensation and non-excusable delays are concurrent, an extension of time can be issued or the delay can be distribution between the owner and the contractor. Concurrent delay can be categories in three types of delays: If excusable and non-excusable delays occur concurrently, the contractor only to allow claim for extension of time: If excusable with compensation and excusable without compensation delays occur concurrently, the contractor is entitle to claim extension of time but no delay damages: If two excusable with compensation delays occur concurrently, the contractor is entitle d to claim extension of time and delay damages. For instance, a concurrent delay would be if the owner failure to give more detail regarding either using ceramic tile or homogeneous tile for toilet floor finishes. But at the same time contractor made with own decision and using ceramic tile for toilet floor finishes but actually owner plan using homogeneous tile. In this situation, the contractor cannot claim for damages. It is because contractor is not follow owner instruction but he can claim for extension of time with owner failure to give more detail of drawing 2.3 Causes of delays Figure 2.2 Causes of delays Based on the researched done through by journal, books, and some other reference. Project delay can be causes by a lot of parties which is shown in the Figure 2.2. They are include client, contractor, consultant, labour, material, equipment, financial and some external causes. 2.3.1 Caused of Client Related Delays Figure 2.3 Factors of client related delays 188.8.131.52 Lack of experience of client in construction According to Koushki, et al. (2005) identified factors of lack of experiences of client in construction project have high influence to the causes of delays. Some of the project delay cause by client due to not enough experience especially fresh developer. Most of the time, client facing a problem and do not know how to solve it immediately because of no experience. During client finding the way to solve the problem, some of the work could not progress. Finally, the whole project delay because of some particular work delay. 184.108.40.206 Change order According to Odeh and Battaineh (2002) mentioned the factors of change orders that contribute to causes of delaysÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬?. Client always change the design during the construction period, during the same time that will affect whole project delay. It is because contractor cannot carry out his work until the latest drawing issue by architect. Consequently contractor cannot be done within the contract period. Most of the current project delay because of change order by client. For instance, a project almost complete but client change certain part of design and instruct contractor carry out the additional work. After done the whole project, the contractor found out was exceeding contract period. 220.127.116.11 Client interference According to Long, et al. (2004) studied the factors client interference that contributes to causes of delays in construction project. Some of the client instruct contractor to carry out additional work without ask architect promise. During the contractor carry out additional work, some of the work could not progress and it will be delay immediately. On the other hand, client do not follow the procedure such as did not mention architect issue an architect instruction. Finally it will affect the whole project delay. 2.3.2 Causes of contractor related delay Figure 2.4 Factors of contractor related delay 18.104.22.168 Inadequate contractor experience Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied the factors of inadequate contractor experience as contributor to causes of delays. Long, ET al. (2004) mentioned the factors of inadequate contractor experience that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. Battaineh (2002) identified the factors of inadequate contractor experience as contributors to causes of delays. In construction industry, some of the delay projects are facing a problem during construction period. But at the same time contractor could not solved the problem immediately because of no experience. During the contractor finding method to solve the problem, some of the works totally stop because of that problem. After the problem was solved, those work keeping continue but run out from the schedule. Finally, the whole project will influence delay. 22.214.171.124 Inaccurate time estimate According to Long, et al. (2004) identified the factors of inaccurate time estimating that contribute to causes of delays in construction project.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? Time estimates are important as inputs into other technique used to manage and structure for all projects. An inaccurate time estimation technique may cause a project delay. For instance, in some delay project, the contractor do not allowed time for some common problem always happen during the construction stage such as breakdown of equipment, miss deliveries by supplies, accidents and emergencies and so on. Because of this problem the actual time will run out from the estimated. So, the whole project could be facing delay. 126.96.36.199 Inaccurate of cost estimate According to Long, et al. (2004) also mentioned that, the factors of inaccurate cost estimating that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. Construction estimating errors can be very expensive and embarrassing. Inaccurate of cost estimate contribute a lot of cause such as wrong measurements from contract drawing, using incorrect units of measure, material improperly priced and the most common mistakes in arithmetic . Sometime contractor because of inaccurate of cost estimate measurement again for that particular work. Finally, due to re-measurement time some of the work will influence delay and it will also affect whole project to delay. 188.8.131.52 Poor site management and supervision Battaineh (2002) studied that, the factors of poor site management and supervision as contributors to causes of delays. Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) identified the factors of poor site management and supervision that contribute to causes of delays. In construction industry, some of the project team a lack of management and supervision due team member without any experience and skill such as hire person who are fresh graduate. Once they facing problem but do not know how to solve it. Besides that, some of the supervisor did not cooperation with their team member due to lack of communicated. Finally, because of cannot solve the problem immediately the whole project influence delay. 2.3.3 Causes of Consultant Related Delays Figure 2.5 Factors of consultant related delays 184.108.40.206 Inadequate consultant experience According to Long, et al. (2004) studied the factors of inadequate consultant experience as contributors to causes of delays. In construction industry, they are many consultants carry out their work without experience. Besides that, there are many causes of a consultant without experience which include different site conditions, mismanagement and maladministration, site access restrictions, defective plan and/or specification. For instances, some of the architects only concentrated in certain part of building and do not have any experience in other type. Once architect design on that particular type of building without experiences, he will facing a lot of mistake and no ideas during design and because of this architect will delay issue the drawing. Finally, the works cannot process and it will affect the whole project delay. 220.127.116.11 Poor design and delay in design According to Ogunlana, et al.(1996) mentioned the factors of poor design and delay in design that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. Design is every important to any project, without good design the whole project will influence delay. It is because in a project if facing poor design that will facing demolish and rebuilt again. This problem happens because of the designer lack of experience. For instance, an architect designs a column in the middle of classroom. Once the contractor without any experience and construct the work exactly shown in the drawing. Finally 18.104.22.168 Incomplete drawing and detail design Long, et al. (2004) identified the factors of incomplete drawing and detail design as contributors to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1996) studied the factors of incomplete drawing and detail design that contribute to causes of delays in construction project. During construction, the contractor is carrying out the work but because of drawing is unclear and none very detail shown in the drawing. He could not continue the work with problem, so the works have to stop immediately until get more detail of that particular drawing from consultant responds. Because of without detail drawing the work could not be progress, so it will affect the tat particular work delay and it will also influence the whole project delay. 2.3.4 Causes of labour related delays Figure 2.6 Factors of labour related delays 22.214.171.124 Labour supply Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) identified the factors of slow labor supply that contribute to causes of delays. Odeh and Bataineh (2002) in their research identified Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âthe factors of labor supply as contributors to causes of delays. Besides material, the labour also consider as major source in the construction industry. Generally, labour are categories into two groups such as skilled workers and unskilled workers. In construction industry without labour project could not run. For instance, during construction, materials are ready to but no worker carrying out the work. During the same time because of no worker to progress of work, the project will confront project delay. 126.96.36.199 Shortage of skilled worker According to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) mentioned the factor of shortage of skill labor is the most important factor that contributed to causes of delays. Skilled worker is a worker who has some special skill, knowledge and ability in his job and also gets highest pay such as plasterer, carpenter, painter, and concreter. Those skilled workers are learning the skills on the job. In construction, some contractors do not hire skilled workers because of higher labour cost and he employs some unskilled workers. At the same time skilled workers do not want get the job from the contractor with lower labour cost. Finally the unskilled workers could not complete the work on time. So, because of shortage of skilled worker affect whole project delay. 188.8.131.52 Labor of productivity According to Ogunlana, et al. (1996) studied the factor of labor productivity having high influence to causes of delays. Labor of productivity; generally define as output per labour hour. There are many factors that influence on the labour productivity. One of the factors is workers experience, labour with high experience and high skills in field leads to high performance at workplace. Besides that, attitude also will affect productivity of labour. For instance, a worker can lay one meter square per hour but because of lazy. Finally he using three hours to finish laid the brick wall. Because of this factor, the progress work delay and it will also influence the whole project delay. 2.3.5 Causes of Material related Delay Figure 2.7 Factors of material related delay 184.108.40.206 Shortage of construction materials Koushki, et al. (2005) mentioned that, factor shortage of construction material that contribute to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of shortage of material as a factor to causes of delay. Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) studied that factors shortage of material as contributors that contribute to causes of delays. Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) identified the factor of shortage of material that contribute to causes of delays. Material shortage is a potential source of construction delay. The major causes of material shortage is demand exceed supply. In construction have a lot type of material and the three main courses are cement, formwork and steel bar. Besides that, material is one of the main sources in construction industry. It is because without material project cannot construct. If a project facing the material shortage problem will be delay. For instance, a project having shortage ceramic tiles even though the labours ready for tiling. In this situat ion, the project will facing delay project. 220.127.116.11 Late delivery of materials Ogunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of late delivery of material as a factor to causes of delay. Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied the factor of late delivery of material that contribute to causes of delays. Late delivery of material as a supplier fault due to high market demand; however the long procedure of the purchasing order from head office was complained. In construction, it factor is similar to the material shortage such as the labour ready for work but no material to do their work. Once contractor cannot receive the material on time that will be delay work and it will also affect project delay. For example, workers want to install the windows but without frame because of late delivery to site. So, the work will be delay and it will affect project delay. 18.104.22.168 Poor quality of construction materials Koushki, et al. (2005) mentioned that factor poor quality of material that contribute to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of poor quality of material as a factor to causes of delay. Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) studied the factor of poor quality of material that contribute to causes of delays. Poor quality of material is construct building with using poor quality of material. The contractor has intention to cheat owner to earn more profit by change the quality of material such as concrete. For instance, a contractor cast a column with using Y 20 steel bar but actual in contract drawing is Y 25. After site staff done the inspection for this column and found that the steel bar inside column is Y 20 and ask contractor demolish the column to rebuild. In this case, time taken to rebuild the column will also affect project delay. 22.214.171.124 Escalation of material prices Ogunlana, et al. (1996) identified the factor of escalation of material prices as a factor to causes of delay. Wiguna and Scoot (2005) studied the factor of escalation of material prices was one factor that contribute to causes of delays. Escalation of material prices will cause shortage material in construction. It is because the market rate is keeping increasing. Some of the contractor does not buy the expensive material. During same time, the construction without material cannot run so the project will influence the project delay. For instance, a contractor because of material cost of market demands higher and does not make any order for material until material shortage. Finally, the construction cannot run without material and it will affect delay project also. 2.3.6 Causes of Equipment Related Delays Figure 2.8 Factors of Equipment related delays 126.96.36.199 Insufficient number of equipment According to Ogunlana, et al. (1998) identified the factors of insufficient numbers of equipment is the most significant factors that contribute to causes of delays. In construction stage, contractors are facing not enough machinery to produce work. It is because some of the contractors do not have a large capital to purchase that machinery due to higher cost. Once the projects carry out with not enough machinery, it will influence whole project delay. For instance, there are two works to be done by using towel crane but in site only one towel crane available. Finally, two of work could not be done at the same time due to not enough towel cranes. 188.8.131.52 Frequent equipment breakdown McCaffer (1998) studied the factors of equipment breakdown as contributors to causes of delays. Ogunlana, et al. (1998) mentioned the factor of frequent equipment breakdown is the most significant factors that contribute to causes of delays. In construction industry, some of the machinery always breakdown due to improper using by worker such as do not follow the instruction. For instance, machinery only can support for five hundred kilograms of material but during worker using that machinery and his carry out six hundred kilograms of material. Finally, the machinery will breakdown. Once machinery breakdown, the work will be stop immediately and affect some work delay. Finally, because of machinery breakdown the whole project will also influence delay. 184.108.40.206 Shortage of Equipment Parts According to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) identified the factor of shortage of equipment parts that contribute to causes of delays. After machinery breakdown, the technical carry out the repair work for the breakdown of equipment. During the same time, some part of machinery none have stock in market. Because of no spare part to repair the machinery, some of the works facing stop progress immediately. Consequently, it will influence whole project to be delay. 2.3.7 Causes of Financial Related Delays Figure 2.9 Factors of Financial related delays 220.127.116.11 ClientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial difficulties According to Chan and Kumaraswamy (1996) identified the factors of clientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial difficulties as contributor to causes of delays. During the construction, client will face some financial problem arise from unanticipated emergencies or financial mismanagement such as global financial crisis. Besides that, a client proposes a new development without borrow term loan or bridging loan from the bank. On the other hand, improper cost planning is a most serious problem for those clients facing in current delay project. For instance, during pre-construction stage a client do not planning cost properly and he will facing a lot of problem in construction stage such as no enough capital to pay contractor payment. Finally, because of contractor did not receive payment to influence whole project delay. 18.104.22.168 Delay payment to suppliers/subcontractor According to Abd Majid and McCaffer (1998) mentioned the factors of inadequate fund allocation and delay payment to subcontractor/suppliers as contributor to causes of delays in construction project. Due to sub- contractor do not take their responsibility to done the work on time. The contractor will delay the payment until they complete the job. But at the same time, the sub-contractor refuse to work because of not yet receive payment. As a consequently, the whole project will be influence delay due to sub-contractor refuse to work. 22.214.171.124 ContractorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial difficulties According to Ogunlana, et al. (1996) studied the factors of contractorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s financial difficulties having high influence to causes of delays. Poor financial management has been known as one of the factors why certain project cannot complete within contract period. Because of contractor lack of experience and could not manage their capital properly. On the other hand, because of delay payment by client contractor not enough money to cover up all sub-contractors and suppliers payment. Finally, the sub-contractor and suppliers refuse to work and supply material to the site and because of this factor the whole will influence delay. 2.3.8 Causes of External Related Delays Figure 2.10 Factors of external related delays 126.96.36.199 Weather condition Odeh and Battaineh (2002) identified the factors of weather condition as contributors to causes of delays. Long, et al. (2004) mentioned factors weather condition as factors ofexternal related delays. AL-Momani (2000) studied the factor of weather condition as contributors to causes of delays in construction project. During the construction period, weather is a factor to influence the whole project delay. It because weather condition that interfere with planned activities. Some activities can process but other cannot. For instances, during the worker cast the ground floor slab, but because of raining that particular work to be delay. 188.8.131.52 Slow site clearance According to Long, et al. (2004) identified factors of slow site clearance as factors of external related delays. During begin of construction stage, the responsibility party should have to carry out their work for site clearance immediately. Without clearance the site construction work cannot process. In some delay project found that, the third party did not take their responsibility to finish the site clearance within the period. Consequently, the whole project delay because of site clearance works delay. 2.4 Effect of Delays According to Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) identified the effects of construction delays on project delivery in Nigerian construction industry. They also said that the six major effects of delays follow by rank which include time overrun, cost overrun, dispute, arbitration, litigation, and total abandonment as shown in the Table 2.11 Effects of Delay Rank Time overrun 1 Cost overrun 2 Dispute 3 Arbitration 4 Litigation 5 Total Abandonment 6 Source : Aibinu and Jagboro (2002) Table 2.11 The effect of delays 2.4.1 Time overrun Time overrun it mean contractor could not carry out their work within contract period. In generally, time overrun can be categories into two group which include excusable delays and non-excusable. Once the project facing time overrun, it will affect the progress of work cannot finish on time. Besides that, the fault party will take the responsibility to pay the relevant parties for damages because of delay. For instance, during the project almost completed, but at the same time contractor because of exceptionally implement weather cannot completed the project within contract period. In this situation the contractor entitle to claim extension of time. On the other hand, if that contractor cannot complete the work within contract period due to his own fault. So the contractor no entitle to claim extension of time and he need to pay liquated damages. As stated in Persatuan Arkitek Malaysia form 2006 (PAM form 2006), which certain clauses stating about the damages by employer due to th is event. It stated that in clauses below. 184.108.40.206 Clause 22.1 Liquidated Damage and Certificate of Non-Completion If the contractor fails to complete the works by the Completion Date, and the architect is of the opinion that the same ought reasonably so to have been completed, the architect shall issue a certificate of Non-completion. Upon the issuance of the certificate of Non-Completion the contractor shall pay or allow to the Employer a sum calculated at the rate stated in the Appendix as Liquidated Damages for the period from the Completion Date to the Date of Practical Completion. The Employer may recover such sum from the Performance Bond. The Employer shall inform the contractor in writing of such deduction or such debt due to from the contractor. The imposition of Liquated Damages by the Employer shall not be taken into account by the Architect in the issuance of payment certificates and Final Certificate, and is not subject to the set-off procedures under clause 30.4 and adjudication. 220.127.116.11 Clause 23.1 Submission of notice and particulars for extension of time If the Contractor is of the opinion that the completion of the Work is or will be delayed beyond the completion Date by any of the Relevant Event stated in Clause 23.8, he may apply for an extension of time provided always that 18.104.22.168 Clause 23.8 Relevant Events Exceptionally implement weather 2.4.2 Cost overrun During construction stages, the client and contractor always facing of cost overrun. Cost overrunÃâÃ is an unexpectedÃâÃ costÃâÃ incurred in excess of a budgeted amount, due toÃâÃ cost underestimation. Cost overrun is related to time overrun, once a project cannot be done in time, it will also affect the cost of project over budget. Commonly, cost overrun always happen due to contractor own fault such as inaccurate of cost estimate and he need to take responsibility to pay owner loss and expense. For instance, a contractor because of improper cost planning due to cost overrun. Finally, the owner set of his loss and expense from the contractor interim payment. 2.4.3 Dispute In construction industry, some of project delay because of dispute between contractual parties such as client, consultants, contractor and some relevant parties. Those disputes because of client failure make payment to the contractor. Once dispute happen, the relevant parties will go through with mediation. The mediator will make a decision to solve the problem. But if one of the parties does not accept the decision made by mediator, the parties will appeal the decision with arbitrator. If both parties accept the decision and the fault parties will take responsibility to pay damages for project delay. 2.4.4 Arbitration In current delay project, some of the contractual parties do not accept the mediator decision and they appeal in arbitration. Arbitrator will also make the decision to solve the problem. But if one of the parties does not accept the decision again made by Arbitrator, they still can appeal the decision in litigation. 2.4.5 Litigation In some delay project, the relevant parties because of still do not accept with the arbitrator decision. They are appeal the result in litigation which is dispute resolution in the courts. In litigation, the parties have a trial either by a court alone or by jury. If those parties are not satisfied judgment again, then they can appeal again if they have any new evidence to proof their right. But one the parties accept with the judgment, the faulty of parties need take responsibility to pay the penalty 2.4.6 Total abandonment Total abandonment it means the whole project stop immediately because of client facing financial difficulties. Some of the current delay project totally abandoned because of clientÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s or contractor problem which include clients bankruptcy, contractor run away, poor marketing and sales strategies and so on. The effect of project totally abandoned will affect many parties such as contractual parties which include contractor, consultant, sub-contractor, supplier and some other relevant parties. Besides those parties, the purchasers will also suffer in cost damages due to project abandoned. 2.5 Methods of minimizing construction delays According to Nguyen, et al. (2004), Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âstudied the factors that can be applied as a method of minimizing of construction delays as follows: competent project manager; frequent progress meeting; accurate initial cost estimates; accurate initial time estimates; awarding bids to the right/experience consultant and contractor.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? During pre-construction stage, a client should employ a depth knowledge project manager to organize a good project team member to progress the work. Besides that, the project team member should be always discussing with the problem having during the site progress. On the other hand, contractor should be employs some employee with experience such as quantity surveyor. So that, during the time or cost estimate they can add on some unforeseen event to avoid the cost and time overrun. Furthermore, the developer should be hire some experience consultant and contractor.iot is because once they facing problem, they can refer previous project to solve the problem immediately. So, the project can process with smoothly. According to Aibinu and Jagboro (2002), Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âidentified two methods to minimize or if possible eliminate time overrun were: acceleration of site activities, and contingency allowance.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? During construction stages, the contractor should carry out his responsibility to make sure the work progress can complete in time. If found that work progress are not equal to the estimate schedule. The contractor may carry out with acceleration such as hire additional worker. Besides that, the client may allow contractor standby some extra cost for unforeseen event such as accidents. According to Koushki, et al. (2005), Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ârevealed that the minimization of time delays and cost overruns would require: ensure adequate and available source of finance until project completion; ensure timely delivery of materials.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? During pre-construction, a client may prepare a good cash flow wit hin the contract period. Once the client does not enough money to cover up construction cost, he can borrow a term loan or bridging loan from the bank to cover the cost until the whole project completed. It will avoid project delay due to client not enough capital. Besides that, the contractors make sure that material are order with a reliable suppliers and can receive it on time. According to Odeh and Battaineh (2002), Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ârecommended to improve the situation of construction project were require: enforce liquidated damage clauses and offering incentives for early completion; developing human resources in the construction industry through proper training and classifying of craftsman.Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬? During construction stage, client does not want to get any loss and expense and he impose the liquidated damages clauses. Once client find out contractor due to his own fault, so client can claim for loss and expense. But at the same time, if contractor completed the whole pro ject early than deadlines and he can claim for incentive. Besides that, human resource are playing important role in the construction. It is because due to this process to improve their skill such as make training for construction management and supervisor to increase of knowledge. It can be creating an innovative, responsive training delivery system to maintain skill currency. Based on literature review of method of minimize construction delays from above, there are 10 method has been mentioned as shown in the Table 2.12. No Methods 1 Competent project manager 2 Frequent progress meeting 3 Accurate initial cost estimates 4 Accurate initial time estimates 5 Awarding bids to the right/experience consultant and contractor 6 Acceleration of site activities 7 Contingency allowance 8 Ensure adequate and available source of finance until project completion 9 Ensure timely delivery of materials. 10 Enforce liquidated damage clauses and offering incentives for early completion 11 Developing human resources in the construction industry through proper training and classifying of craftsman Table 2.12 Method of minimizing construction delay 2.6 Summary
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
How Could Physicians Perception about the Combination Therapy in managing Asthma affects its Sales performance - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2542 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Medicine Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? How Could PhysicianÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Perception about the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCombination TherapyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in managing Asthma affects its Sales performance? (Special reference to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicort Turbuhaler Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âby AstraZeneca) Project Propsal Table of Contents ContentsPage Title 3 Introduction 3 Background of the problem 3 Insight to company Insight to product Establishment of the problem 4 Objectives of the report 5 Literature Review 6 introduction to key concepts 6 Theoretical Framework 6 Analyzing finding at national level 9 The Approach to data collection analysis 9 Research Methodology 10 Research Instruments 10 Sample Technique 10 Data collection 11 Data analysis 11 Credibility of proposal 12 Consideration of ethical issues 12 Action Plan 12 List of references 13 List of Figures Figure 1: Market share comparisons in combination Market 2013/2014. Figure 2: The GMS: A Broad conceptualization of Global Marketing Strategy Figure 3: Sampling Design List of Tables Table 1: Sales Volume Comparison 2012/2013/2014 DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "How Could Physicians Perception about the Combination Therapy in managing Asthma affects its Sales performance?" essay for you Create order Title How Could PhysicianÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s Perception about the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCombination TherapyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in managing Asthma affects its Sales performance? (Special reference to Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicort Turbuhaler Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âby AstraZeneca) Introduction Background of the problem When analyzing the background of the problem, it is important to have and comprehensive knowledge about the organization and the products. Insight to the company Astra was a former Swedish pharmaceutical company which was founded in 1913. Due to various future ambitions Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âAstra- PLCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âZeneca-PLCÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã of United Kingdom merged together and formed AstraZeneca-PLC in1999. As per the sales revenue of 2013 AstraZeneca holds the 6th position globally in multinational pharmaceutical industry recording a sales turnover of US $ 27.9bn (Top 20 Pharma, 2013) Insight to product. Turbuhaler is a class of a device innovated by AstraZeneca, this device is preloaded with drugs to use in asthmatic Patients. Widely used as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicort TurbuhalerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã (generic name of drug included Budesonide and Formetrol as a combination) Symbicort Turbuhaler as a product has been in Sri Lanka for more than 6 years. With having lots of benefits and still holds the patency for the device, itÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s available at a premium price of LKR. 2516/= per device with 60 doses, and available in two strengths. Establishment of the problem. Even though Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicort TurbuhalerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã offers more Clinical benefits over competitors, as per the internal sales data of AstraZeneca- Sri Lanka in 2014, Symbicort Turbuhaler has shown a 5% growth over 2013. Even though the growth is 5% the market share has come down by 1%. As per the internal sales in 2013 has been de- grown by 21% over 2012. (AstraZeneca-SL, 2014) Table 1. Sales Volume Comparison 2012/2013/2014 2012 2013 Growth 2014 Growth Units Value Units Value Units Value 18,253 38,141,957 14,357 31,413,116 79% 15,020 32,863,760 105% But in overall Combination Market data in Sri Lanka, it is identified that total market is de-growing at -3.48% in revenue over 2013 in 2014. But as Multinational products Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSeretideÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã by GSK (Glaxo SmithKline) also has lost their MS by 2%, on the other hand Branded generics have increased their MS by 1% (IMS, Q4-2014). On the other hand AstraZeneca allocates 10 % of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicortÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã sales revenue as its promotional budget. That means averagely about LKR 3 Mn per annum is being used for promotions of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicortÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã . But when Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicortÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã growth is depend on various factors in marketing, need to identify the same for its performance. However expected growth of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicortÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã in 2014 was 15% (AstraZeneca-SL, 2014) Figure 1. Market share comparisons in combination Market 2013/2014. Objectives of the Report The main objective of this study will be identifying the perception and the prescribing patterns of physicians; will it impact the sales performance of a pharmaceutical product? To identify the key drivers that affects the sales performance of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âCombination therapyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã To identify effective way of increasing sales volume of Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbicortÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã and secure the market share. To Increase the financial contribution to RD and strengthen the product pipeline of AstraZeneca. To provide suitable suggestions and recommendations to the management of AstraZeneca to overcome above problems. 3. Literature Review 3.1 introductions to key concept In this context of study it is really need to be understood that the variations of trends in sales impact is due to marketing concepts are used to meet the objectives. To arrive at organizational expectations, a marketing plan or a conceptual frame work of marketing is meant by marketing mix (Palmer, 2007). According to AlaÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢Eddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad (2013) marketing mix refers to a set of tools that offers customer which in return to an organization to achieve their objectives. Marketing mix 4ps consist of product, price, place, and promotion. When a product performance is declining and variations in performance in certain period of time, it is right to analyze the marketing mix which includes the perception of the customers towards the product, the promotion strategies and the targeted customer base is covered. Which also have a positive or negative impact on performance? Since Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã âSymbic ort TurbuhalerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã is a tangible product conventional 4ps Marketing Mix has been taken as the concept to explore. 3.2 Theoretical Framework to the Project The study that has been heavily emphasized that marketing mix is increasing being adopted by in virtually all the sectors of the economy. Hence as per Aremu, M.A. and Bemiduro, J.A., (2012) marketing mix has been a major determinant of the organizations short term and long term success. Furthermore this study emphasizes that adopting marketing mix by an entrepreneur will able to gain competitive advantage as well. Since this study states that organization success can achieve with marketing mix, it will be an interesting opportunity to find out more in-depth what kind of elements will impact the same. Marketing mix is a great tool to gain competitive advantage over other marketed products (Ibidunni, O.S., 2011). As per this study it is proven that in Nigerian multinational companies and indigenous food and beverage companies have utilized marketing mix elements to arrive at a competitive advantage. And it is also clearly identified and mentioned the variables could influence the perception of the consumer towards companies achieving its performance level in the market place. This study strongly recommends indigenous companies to follow relevant marketing mix. Hence this study emphasize on marketing mix as a tool of gaining competitive advantage over other markets, will be considered as a supportive study and will be explored for further information to do this research. As the above mentioned studies Shaoming Zou and S. Tamer Cavusgil (2002) has clearly stated that the relationship between global marketing strategies has an impact on organizational performance. Global Marketing Strategies (GMS) that integrates three major perspectives which includes standardization, configuration- coordination, and integration perspectives. Since AstraZeneca Pharmaceutical is a Multinational Company impl ementing global marketing strategies can have an impact on organizational performance. The below shown Figure 2. Explains eight dimensions which global marketing strategy at which degree that is implemented to market products across other country markets. Source: Journal of marketing, Vol. 66, Page 43. This study will be further explored deeply to get information for the research. As followed by the previous study, article published in Brazilian Administration Review by Brei, V.A., DÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢avila, L., Camargo, L.F and Engels, J., (2011) has done a meta-analysis on the influence of adaptation and standardization of marketing mix on performance in international context. The results of this analysis have shown it has a positive impact on its performance. If its adaptation, it is suggested to adapt price and followed by promotions, product and place. Since it is proven that marketing mix has a positive impact on its performance, referring this study will help to f ind out more information. Elaborating further more would like to explore more about, will prescribing patterns of physicians due to promotional strategies implemented companies through promotional staff? According to the study done by, Serhat, Vancelik. , (2007) it has been proven the promotions done by promotion staff, academic content (knowledge) which is shared with the physicians has made an impact on their prescribing pattern. This study can be explored to identify that any promotion strategies by AstraZeneca- SL will Impact the Physician prescribing Pattern. Pharmaceutical companies use scientific and educational information to physicians in giving the best treatment to their patients. But in Sri Lankan Health sector it is found to be different due to several factors. According to Geoffrey, K. Spurling, (2010) have done a systemic review to identify information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians prescribing. The results of thi s study have shown that the investment cost on promotion by the companies is competitively high and it has an impact on influencing physicians prescribing pattern. This study can be explore further to get information and will be supportive in identifying the factors in Sri Lankan Market. According to Saito S, Mukohara K, Bito S (2010), has done a survey in japan physicians to identify the relationship between the pharmaceutical Representatives or companies. The results have shown that the attitude of several physicians has an impact or influence in prescribing pattern and at a risk in long term. This is a clear identification and will be the same scenario which has impacted in srilankan market due to no regulation in controlling. Fusun. F. Gonul., (2001) has found that promotion of prescription drugs will impact on physician choice behavior. In this study not only price the promotions (detailing and sampling) have an impact on physician behavior which is positive in most cases . And physicians in this study have been categorized by fairly limited price sensitivity. This study will be deeply analyze and get further information to this research. Specially to develop questionnaires effectively. 3.3 Analyzing the findings at national level. Customer (Physicians) Perception impact on marketing mix which can be positive or negative in performance in a product or in an organization will be analyzed locally, and globally through reviewing the studies, articles, and journals stated in the theoretical frame work above in this research. The Approach to data collection analysis. In order to selecting the methodology will be looked at the possibility of accessing to primary and secondary data in terms of getting permissions. And also specifically apply theories that learned in an appropriate manner, research methods, research instruments, sample technique, data collection, and data analysis will be elaborated in this topic and will give the credibility of doing this research. Research Methodology According to Naresh, K. Malhotra., (2008) it is identified that to formulate successful marketing strategies with rich insights, will get from both qualitative and quantitative approaches in combination. In this research Quantitative approach will be used to understand the relationship of the variables. Mainly quantitative approaches such as questionnaires will be used with physicians as they are very busy and less open for lengthy or in-depth discussions. But qualitative approach may be used for measuring the medical representativeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s product knowledge by using secondary data available at Company. Research instrument According to Naresh, K. Malhotra., (2008) an instrument of research questionnaires have three specific objectives, first the respondents can and will answer which must translate the information in to a set of specific questions. This is a challenging objective. Second, a questionnaire must motivate and encourage getting involved in the interview. Third, it should minimize response error. So in this research Main instrument will be the questionnaire given to physicians. ItÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s a self-administrative questionnaire. Sample Technique Judgmental sampling (typical case sampling) will be used as a sample technique. There are few reasons to use judgmental sampling. Pharmaceutical industry is an academic and informative area Data saturation could be essential Difficulty of approaching elements Relatively low cost Figure 3. Sample Design. Above sample of 35 elements will include following. 10 physicians 2 Chest Physicians 15 General Practitioners 8 Medical Officers Data Collection Primary data collection methods Questionnaires will be distributed through medical representative. Medical representatives will be educated in obtaining answers to questionnaires. Secondary data collection methods Annual Reports Territory sales reports IMS data Company internal Evaluation Reports ( Medical Representatives) Data Analysis Collection of data will be analyzed by using MS-Excel and also will be presented through bar charts, tables, and line graphs. Credibility of this proposal. This research is practical and achievable study. All sample and elements will be selected from current customer base of AstraZeneca Sri Lanka hence all customers are accessible. Since the total sample elements are restricted to 35 doctors. Completion of this research in given time frame is possible. Furthermore, financial liability is within the acceptable range. Consideration of Ethical issues. Confidentiality of collected data will be secured. Access to hospital premises will be requested before collecting data Action Plan List of reference Roger A.Plamer, Juanita Cockton, Graham Cooper (2007) Managing Marketing [Online] Available at: https://books.google.lk/books?hl=enlr=id=xc3LMeik5wwCoi=fndpg=PR3dq=introduction+on+marketing+mix+4ps+palmer+2004ots=mJ2-YoHddhsig=5-f6nj8z2BF4iteWorQBRMp_XLMredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=marketing mixf=false (Accessed: 29 March 2015) AlaEddin Mohammad Khalaf Ahmad (2013) the impact of Marketing Mix Strategy on hospitals performance measured by patient satisfaction: an empirical investigation on Jeddah Private Sector Hospital senior managerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s perspective, International Journal of Marketing Studies; Vol. 5, No. 6; 2013 [Online] Available at: https://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijms/article/view/31968/18600. (Accessed: 29 March 2015) Aremu, M.A. and Bemiduro, J.A., (2012). Marketing mix practice as a determinant of entrepreneurial business performance. International Journal of Business and Management Vol. 7, No. 1; January 2012 Ibidunni, O.S., (2011) marketing mix as tools for achieving competitive advantage in Nigerian market place: Multi-National and indigenous companies in perspective. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 5(7), pp.81-94. Shaoming Zou and S. Tamer Cavusgil (2002). The GMS: A broad conceptualization of global marketing strategy and its effect on firm performance in journal of marketing, Vol. 66, No. 4 (Oct., 2002) pp. 40-56 [Online] Available at: https://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3203357?sid=21106316350763uid=70uid=385054361uid=385054351uid=3uid=2134uid=60uid=2 (Accessed: 30 March 2015) AstraZeneca Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" SL, 2014. Internal Secondary sales data. [Excel] December 2014, Colombo: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. IMS Q-4, 2014. Sri Lankan Pharmaceutical industry market statistics, software version 2014, IMS: Colombo. Top 20 Pharma, (2013). Top 20 pharmaceutical companies. [Online] Available at: https://www.contractpharma.com/heaps/view/542. (Accessed 30 March 2015) Brei, V.A., DÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢avila, L., Camargo, L.F and Engels, J., (2011). The influence of adaptation and standardization of the marketing mix on performance: a meta-analysis in Brazilian Administration Review. [Online] Available at: https://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S1807-76922011000300004script=sci_arttext (Accessed 30 March 2015). Serhat, Vancelik. , (2007). Impact on pharmaceutical promotion on prescribing decisions of General practitioners in Eastern Turkey in BMC Public Health.[Online] Available at: https://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/7/122. (Accessed 30 March 2015) Geoffrey, K. Spurling, (2010). Information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians prescribing: a systemic review. [Online] Available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?id=10.1371/journal.pmed.1000352#pmed-1000352-g002. (Accessed 31 March 2015) Saito S, Mukohara K, Bito S (2010) Japanese Practicing Physicians Relationships with Pharmaceutical Representatives: A National Survey. PLOS ONE 5(8): e12193. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012193 Available at: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012193. ( Accessed 31March 2015) Fusun. F. Gonul., Franklin, carter., (2001). Promotion of prescription drugs and its impact on physician choice behavior in journal of marketing. Vol. 65, No. 3 (Jul., 2001), pp. 79-90[Online] Available at: https://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3203468?sid=21105863286271uid=385054361uid=70uid=385054351uid=2134uid=60uid=2uid=3. (Accessed 1 April 2015). Naresh, K. Malhotra., (2008). Marketing Research: An Applied Orientation, 5/E, Person education India. [Online] Available at: https://books.google.lk/books?hl=enlr=id=TKb8iORscegCoi=fndpg=PR19dq=using+quantitative+and+qualitative++research+methodology+for+a+product+to+identify+customer+perceptionots=xUpZFRQ9eXsig=TCTEBR33I9V4egJ8OwvQoFITEPcredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=quantitative and qualitativef=false. (Accessed 2 April 2015).
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Holocaust is the name applied to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of the Jews of Europe and North Africa along with other groups during World War II by Nazi Germany and collaborators. Early elements of the Holocaust include the Kristallnacht pogrom of the 8th and 9th November 1938 and the T-4 Euthanasia Program, progressing to the later use of killing squads and extermination camps in a massive and centrally organized effort to exterminate every possible member of the populations targeted by the Nazis. The Jews of Europe were the main victims of the Holocaust in what the Nazis called the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. The commonly used figure for the number of Jewish victims is six million, so much soÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Eliezers teacher, Moshe the Beadle, somehow escapes the Nazis and returns to Sighet to convey to the town an unheeded warning. Perhaps the most bizarre coincidence of all is Eliezers survival. He is fortunate enough, on hi s arrival in Birkenau, to meet a man who tells him to lie about his age. Despite Eliezers small size, he does not succumb to cold or exhaustion and is not chosen in any of the selections, though many who are healthier than he is are sent to the gas chambers (Weisel 63-109). In the novel, Eliezer says that the Holocaust murdered his God, and he often expresses the belief that God could not exist and permit the existence of the Holocaust ( Weisel 73). Elie Wiesel and Eliezer are not exactly the same, but Eliezer expresses, in most cases, the emotions that Wiesel felt at the time of the Holocaust. It is fair to say that Night contains a profound skepticism about Gods existence. Yet Eliezer is not enlightened by his rejection of God; instead, he is reduced to the shell of a person. Likewise, Akiba Drumer, upon abandoning his faith, loses his will to live (Weisel 73). Wiesel seems to be suggesting that the events of the Holocaust prove that faith is a necessary element in human survival, because it preserves man, whether or not it is based in reality. Faith, Wiesel seems to say, enables hope, and it is always necessary for the prisoners to maintain hope, in order for them to maintain life. Even when Eliezer claims
The Marketing Strategies of Apple, Inc. Market segmentation strategy involves dividing the market into groups, where individuals have similar needs and wants for services and products. It could also be a segmentation of people on the basis of behavior, culture and economic status. To get a clearer picture of what is market segmentation, one can always look into the definition provided by business dictionary. com, market segmentation is defined as, Process of defining and sub-dividing a large homogenous market into clearly identifiable segments having similar needs, wants, or demand haracteristics (Meadows, 2008). Companies need to segment their market for different reasons. Before one markets products or services, one needs to understand their customers, and find ways and means to satisfy their wants. This is imperative to stay ahead of the competition and build the brand. This is done through extensive market research. Although it is not possible to satisfy individual needs and even to understand all of them, a clearly defined market segmentation strategy will help create a market to cater to groups of individuals that will make economic sense to mass produce and distribute. We will write a custom essay sample on The Marketing Strategies of Apple, Inc. or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The concept of target market segmentation strategy also falls under the blanket of market segmentation, except the former recognizes and understands the diversity of customers and provides them with products and services that suit their specific requirements (McDaniels Kolari, 2008). A successful market strategy strives to understand different segments and its different needs; works on the exhibited common wants and responds immediately. Apple has historically been troubled by big-box sales staffers, who are ill-informed about its products, a problem that made it difficult for Apple to set its very different products part from the rest of the computing crowd. By creating a store strictly devoted to Apple products, the company has not only eliminated this problem but has made an excellent customer-loyalty move. Apple stores are a friendly place where Mac and PC users alike are encouraged to play with and explore the technology that the company offers. This is a space where Macheads can not only get service but also hang out with others who enjoy Apple products Just as much as they do. By creating this space, Apple encourages current and new customers to get excited about what it has to offer. Apple carefully considers what consumers are looking for, so its products are a result of both extensive research and strong design (Piddshetti, 2007). This meticulous planning is a large contributor to Apples high customer-satisfaction rates. Its plain and simple: Robust and easy-to-use products not only make customers happy, but also makes them want to buy more products from Apple in the future. Apple Inc. , led by Steve Jobs virtually rewrote the book of strategy as well as the history of consumer electronics, with its pioneering i products: the iPod and iPhone (Peckham, 2010). These products are differentiated with features that multiple niche market segments would appreciate and pay for but are also cost-competitive helping most people become the users of the products. The niches that each of the products occupies, therefore, cover almost the entire market place questioning the competitors, yet iPod and iPhone remain the pioneers with an amazing invincibility (Peckham, 2010). The sustainability of Apple products relates to the fact that they ushered in, and successfully maintained a whole new and complete user experience, which could not be matched by any competitor products in totality despite their eing superior in parts. They were highly effective products that were reached to customers with attractive ownership options and distinctive retailing formats. The products constituted the core that created the markets, however. An example of one product and multiple segments would be Apples iPod which was produced and targeted towards different demographic segments including male and females, different age levels and different income levels. The iPod was also targeted towards different geographic segments where the product had variations in price and features (Piddshetti, 2007). Common elements of a successful business plan include competitive analysis, value proposition, a pricing structure, and market segmentation. Market segmentation enables companies to become more understanding and knowledgeable of their customers needs. Marketers are able to develop strategic marketing plans based on this information which is directly geared towards a target market. By understanding customers, a company can become more responsive and better adapt to changing customer needs. References McDaniel, Stephen W. and Kolari, James W. , (2008). What is marketing strategy? Journal of Marketing. 1(3), October, 19-30. Retrieved September 1, 2010, from ProQuest Direct database.
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
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