Thursday, October 31, 2019
FOOD MICROBIOLOGY - Lab Report Example The most common cause of food poisoning is bacteria. These bacteria cause symptoms such as vomiting, stomach cramps, headache, diarrhoea, fever or a combination of the above. Some food poisoning bacteria can cause death. Under the right environmental conditions, that is, warmth, food, moisture and time, bacteria can multiply through mitosis where one can split into two in every 10-20 minutes. Bacteria grow at temperatures between 5 and 63 OC and thrives at temperatures of about 37Ã °C. Dried foods have a longer shelf life because bacteria needs moisture to grow. High levels of sugar or salt and acid is unconducive for the growth of bacteria. Bacteria also prefers foods that are high in protein and moisture. These high risk foods include meat, poultry, eggs and fish. There are various types of food poisoning bacteria with each having own food sources. Salmonella is found in many types of raw meat, Listeria is found in raw poultry and other meats, Escherichia coli is found in raw meat, Clostridium perfringens is found in raw meat, vegetables, herbs and spices, while staphylococcus aureus is obtained from food handlers. (Ridgewell, 2001). In the early 1980s, the number of recorded human cases of Salmonella enterica rose to over 10,000 cases in the UK, then increased for 20 years in England and Wales to a peak of 33,000 cases in 1997 (Cogan & Humprey, 2003). From 1998, the number has been decreasing till date. However, according to (Public Health England, 2014) there was an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis that caused three deaths and an outbreak of 247 cases from 158 on 15th of August 2014. There were 99 cases in Hampshire, 39 in Cheshire, 30 in London and 54 in the West Midlands. Salmonella Enteritidis is a bacterium that causes gastrointestinal illness and is often associated with poultry and eggs. Salmonella belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae and are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli. Salmonella has an incubation
Monday, October 28, 2019
Factors that Relate to Student Persistence in a Two-Year Vocational Program at a Community College Essay Example for Free
Factors that Relate to Student Persistence in a Two-Year Vocational Program at a Community College Essay Student persistence is one of the many factors that educators try to consider in the goal making students succeed in their education. Schools cater to the academic needs of students and it is the primary role of schools to provide education to children, but nowadays there have been a number of children that have low interest in finishing an education (Smith, 2002). Community colleges are institutions that cater to those children who want to consider taking up a vocational course instead of a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree after graduating from high school. In institutions such as these, there have been a number of studies that shows that students enrolled in this program identified different factors that contribute to their success in the program. The references gathered in this study revealed seven thematic findings with regard to persistence of students enrolled in a community college. These first thematic finding that studies reveal relevant to the success of student enrolled in community colleges is support, this support comes from peers, family members and as well as support from mentors. The second thematic finding is financial support, wherein students saw that being able to be granting a support financially to cater to their education were beneficial for them to continue education. The third thematic findings discusses the different self-variables that contribute to their success, these factors include the determination of a child to succeed and the fear of failing as one of the important factors that made them continue schooling. The fourth thematic finding will discuss all about a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s background or life experiences that contribute to their persistence in school. The fifth will tackle all about how different techniques that students use in coping with school are beneficial to their stay at school. The sixth will look into how students say that behaving in a professionally during their stay at school became beneficial for their success at school. The seventh and the last will dwell into the different challenges that students face in school, such as stress, as a major barrier in their success at school. All of these will be given corresponding analysis, discussion and interpretation as regard to their contribution to the success of students enrolled in community colleges. Thematic Finding 1: Support It has been well known that one of the factors that contribute to student success is the support which students get from educators as well as from their peers. Studies reveal that all participants believed that the support that they have received from mentors, peers and family members played a big role towards their success in school. Support from people surrounding a student is notably a factor to consider in ensuring success of a child at school. The first support that would surely boost student confidence in continuing their education comes from their own mentors. This is said to be true because if mentors or educators are providing support to their students, they would be able to have a sense of encouragement, and this encouragement boosts their determination and therefore makes the student persist school (Hu Ma, 2010). This kind of mentor-student support is viewed as a counseling support, wherein this kind of support is seen to be beneficial for student to persist school (Fralick, n.d). This type of support has been supported by mentors or educators as beneficial for studentÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence in school. Aside from support that studentÃ¢â¬â¢s get from educators it is also seen that peer support plays a big role in the persistence of students at school. The role that the peers of an individual play a big role is seen not only in the education of an individual but as well as in their own lives. This is why studies have shown how beneficial peer support plays in assisting a student not only in academics as well as personal matters (Quimbita, 1991). Peer support is also seen as a major factor that contribute to the persistence of a child at school because of the fact that students get to share the learning experience with their peers in other words, they experience shared learning (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). It is here that peer support is indeed a major factor that would contribute to the persistence of a learner. Aside from mentors and peers, the one and most special source of support would come from family members. Different studies have revealed that the support coming from parents and other family members have been beneficial for student success (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). It is in this kind of support that students would see that the people play a big part in their lives are supporting them, this kind of support provides encouragement, and this is what students take in order for them to succeed in school. The support that learners gain from these different types of groups evidently brings out one thing that is so important in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s success at school, and that is encouragement that brings about determination. In analyzing the role of support in student persistence at school, it could be clearly seen that the one factor that students get from these support is encouragement. This encouragement from supports such as educators, peers and family members makes students determined to succeed academically because they know that people believe in them, this alone is big factor to consider in ensuring student persistence at school. Comments: Thematic Finding 2: Financial Support It is common that students that finish high school would not continue on going to universities and colleges, the primary reason for this is mainly on financial issues. This has been an issue especially among students that belong to poor families (Smith, 2002). Seeing financial issue as a barrier for children to acquire an education, different financial support is now granted to learners in order for them to acquire an education (Wan Ko, 2005). Different studies have revealed that majority of the total population of the participants saw financial aid or assistance as one factor that contributed to their success at school. Financial support or aid is said to be beneficial to studentÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence at school because of the financial support it gives to cater to the different need of the students in the duration of their stay in the school (Wright, 2010). The various financial aids available primarily cater to the financial needs of individuals during their whole stay at school; this is especially beneficial for students that belong to poor families (Hu, 2001). Educators who avail such assistance are provided full financial support, from enrollment to different school related finances, they are provided with all of these things (Wright, 2010). Especially among students that belong to poor families, this kind of support is something that would really help them in their pursuit of obtaining an education (Scrivener, 2008). Financial support is evidently a need amongst students, because of the fact that as years pass, the price of education n also increases and the less fortunate are deprived of an education because of this (Li, et.al, 2008). Such financial support is evidently needed in community colleges, because of the fact that most of the population of students enrolled in community colleges belongs to financially challenged families (Wright, 2010). Some financial aid or services not only provides financial assistance, most services also provide rewards for academically high performing students (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). The additional perk from financial support makes students motivated to perform well academically (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). Such rewards are not only provided for financial sake alone, this kind of reward also provides learners with an opportunity to perform well academically (Holzer Nightingale, 2009). This shows that such financial assistance would not only provide the student with the chance to have an education, but as well as provide motivation to perform well in class. This kind of motivation brought about by financial support allows students to improve their grades, as well as provide enough motivation to bring about a sense of persistence in school. Studies and reports have revealed that indeed financial support plays a big role in student persistence in school. Financial support is seen to be one primary factor in student persistence in school because of how this service caters to the needs of students who are financially troubled and at the same time this service provides learners with an opportunity to do better at school and provide enough motivation for students to persist school
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Introduction Acts of terrorism has greatly affected multiple countries, including the United States. The horrific events that took place on 9/11 left the American people shocked, devastated, and furious. Many innocent AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s lost their lives on this infamous day. While airports and airlines are not free from security breaches, a set of new security measures and requirements have been implemented by the International Air Transport Association and the International Civil Aviation Organization (Beirman, 2011). Increased security at airports and airlines, have left terrorists to target more vulnerable areas such as tourist destinations. Attacking touristsÃ¢â¬â¢ spots such as hotels, restaurants, nightclubs, conference venues and other forms of transportation such as buses, trains and rail terminals are an easier target for a terrorist group (Beirman, 2011). The main purpose of this paper is to inform the reader on how 9/11 impacted the tourism industry in recent following years after the attack, as well as to provide terrorism prevention strategies for tourism destinations. The attacks on 9/11 have significantly impacted the tourism industry in ways such as international, domestic and business arrivals, the economy and tourism business sectors, and citizenÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptions of traveling, thus resulting in researches coming up with strategies on how to prevent terrorism from happening at a tourism destination. Links and Trends Between Terrorism and Tourism Tourists may be victims of terrorism simply because they were at the wrong place at the wrong time. However, in recent history there is more likely to be a link between tourism and terrorism. As seen throughout the news, there are multiple instances where terrorists are seen targeting tourists specifically, such as the Bali Bombings that took place in Bali. Reason being is that attacking tourists has a distinctive advantage for the terrorist group. First of all, many foreign tourists who are attacked are from so-called developed countries such as the United States, France, Italy, and other various countries. Attacking theses foreign tourists guarantees publicity for the terrorist group in that touristÃ¢â¬â¢s home country (Horner & Swarbrooke, 2004). Having these countries give terrorist groups publicity makes terrorists feel they have accomplished their task and are becoming more power... ...1, September 9). The tourism legacy of 9/11 ten years on. Retrieved from http://www.eturbonews.com/25139/tourism-legacy-911-ten-years Bonham, Carl & Edmonds, Christopher & Mak, James (2006, February 22) The Impact of 9/11 and Other Terrible Global Events on Tourism in the U.S. and Hawaii [Case Study]. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/3683/econwp087.pdf?sequence=1 Herman, E. (2002, June 10). Hotels rebound from 9/11 revenue loss hampers full recovery. Retrieved from http://articles.nydailynews.com/2002-06-10/news/18188960_1_room- rates-hotel-consultant-revenue-per-available-room Horner, S., & Swarbrooke, J. (2004). International cases in tourism management. (1 ed.). London, England: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. Paraskevas, Alexandros & Arendell, Beverley (2007, February 8). A strategic framework for terrorism prevention and mitigation in tourism destinations [Case Study]. Oxford: Elsevier Publishing. Wolley, John, & Peters, Gerhard (2001, September 11). George W. Bush: "Address to the Nation on the Terrorist Attacks," September 11, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=58057
Thursday, October 24, 2019
According to teachers for as long as any can remember, one cannot survive in this world without mathematics, yet thousands in the United States alone cannot grasp mathematics, cannot learn mathematics because of Ã¢â¬Å"DyscalculiaÃ¢â¬ (also called Dyscalcula). Dyscalculia is a term meaning "specific learning disability in mathematics." People who suffer with a poor memory for all things mathematical have many other symptoms and characteristics. Taken as a whole, these coexisting conditions comprise what is termed as "the dyscalculia syndrome." Dyscalculia is an MLD (mathematics learning disability) that affects approximately ten percent of the US population, yet almost no one (shy of those diagnosed with the MLD) knows that it even exists. People who suffer from Dyscalculia have severe anxiety attacks, as well as short term memory loss associated with mathematics, numbers, rules, and retention. Other symptoms of Dyscalculia range from normal or accelerated language acquisition, poetic ability, good visual memory for the printed word, difficulty with the abstract concepts of time and direction, inability to keep track of time, and may be chronically late. The diagnosis of such a MLD is a simple test that ranges from a few hours to as long as a day. It is, however, difficult to recognize because it appears similar to math anxiety, lack of studying, and just simple mistakes. Doctors believe that there are thousands in the world who have Dyscalculia, but go undiagnosed. The test is also very expensive, costing too much for the average person or college student to pay for (ranging from five hundred dollars into the thousand or so range). As is typical in dyscalculia syndrome, students are usually gifted in most other academic areas. They may be in Honors classes, achieve excellent grades, and be tenacious learners. Math, however, confounds them, because it defies their learning history. They can read, understand, work the problems, but instead of remembering and mastering the material, it is mysteriously forgotten sometimes an hour later. To some, it seems like a lack of effort; to those with Dyscalculia it is a nightmare. The typical response to this phenomenon is to try harder. Thus, students apply all of the strategies used for success in other classes to the mathematics task. But success is temporary. The student willingly exerts extraordinary effort and invests unprecedented amounts of time, yet success eludes her. At this point, the student becomes frustrated by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. But she is further aggravated by the fact that she cannot identify and define the obstacles to her achievement.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
For some people, the mere mention of the name Ã¢â¬Å"MafiaÃ¢â¬ paints a portrait in the subconscious of burly or corpulent, thuggish-looking men, with peppered or jet black hair, a scar somewhere on their face, dressed in black or gray pinstriped suits garnished with a flower in their lapel, a fedora cocked angularly over their brow, their necks and fingers decorated in gold jewelry, and carrying a briefcase or any means of transportation for weapons or money. This image is typically cliche of the average early 20th century gangster found in big cities such as New York City and Chicago, and of those individuals found in classic films such as Ã¢â¬Å"The GodfatherÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"ScarfaceÃ¢â¬ . So then, what is, or who are, the Ã¢â¬Å"Mafia? Ã¢â¬ From where did they come? What did they do? Where are they now? To truly understand what the Mafia is and represents, one must travel back in time, centuries ago, where the word, and the people associated, are rooted from an area known widely for its bountiful history of arts, war, and honor Ã¢â¬â Sicily, Italy. A thorough understanding of what the Mafia consists of would not be complete without an understanding of the Sicilian concepts of Ã¢â¬Å"vendettaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"omerta. Ã¢â¬ The Italian word vendetta is rooted in the Latin vindicta meaning Ã¢â¬Å"revenge. Ã¢â¬ A more modern equivalent would be violent and vengeful Ã¢â¬Å"pay backÃ¢â¬ . The vendetta was often a prolonged series of retaliatory, hostile acts in exchange for previous violent acts, such as an Ã¢â¬Å"eye for an eyeÃ¢â¬ concept or otherwise known as lex taliones. In ancient times, when enforcement of law by reliable authorities was virtually unknown, families would often take matters in their own hands, and exact Ã¢â¬Å"paymentÃ¢â¬ or revenge for a wrong-doing by another by means of vendetta, often by employing violence, to include murder, to redress their grievance and restore honor to the injured group or family. Equally important in understanding what Mafia is about, is the Italian concept of Ã¢â¬Å"omerta. In its present day usage, omerta is simply a Ã¢â¬Å"code of silence,Ã¢â¬ much like the Blue Curtain of Secrecy employed by law enforcement or omissions of knowledge that friends will utilize if a comrade is accused of a crime. Historically, however, the root meaning of this Italian word is Ã¢â¬Å"manliness,Ã¢â¬ not unlike the Spanish concept of Ã¢â¬Å"machismo,Ã¢â¬ which is considered an integral part, if not the very core value, behind the Ã¢â¬Å"code of honor. Ã¢â¬ It was in 13th century Sicily that such Ã¢â¬Å"men of honorÃ¢â¬ organized themselves to drive out foreign invaders, and were willing to kill, if necessary. Protecting the identities of their brothers in the event of capture, these Ã¢â¬Å"men of honorÃ¢â¬ invoked omerta, a code of silence, by refusing to provide governing authorities any information. The concept of omerta, then, served to provide a modicum of protection for the remaining body of those Ã¢â¬Å"men of honor. Ã¢â¬ No one is certain of the enigmatic origins of the name given to groups of organized criminals from Italy, and the word itself had been long debated. One theory takes place during the time in the middle ages when the island of Sicily was plagued by foreign invaders, particularly by the French Angevins, who imposed unfair taxes upon the Sicilians. Rising up against their oppressors, several numbers of male citizens, who later came to be called Ã¢â¬Å"men of honor,Ã¢â¬ banded together to overthrow the French, while shouting, Ã¢â¬Å"Morte alla Francia Italia anelia! Ã¢â¬ Translated, the phrase means: Ã¢â¬Å"Death to the French is ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s cry! Ã¢â¬ Taking the first letter from each word in this Italian phrase, the word Ã¢â¬Å"M-a-F-I-a! Ã¢â¬ was created. Another theory thought to be true is that the word Ã¢â¬Å"MafiaÃ¢â¬ was created in 1282 when an enraged group of Sicilian Ã¢â¬Å"men of honorÃ¢â¬ struck back against a French soldier, killing him in retaliation for raping a Palermo girl on her wedding day. Taking away a young womanÃ¢â¬â¢s virginity before it is given to her spouse is a heinous crime, and during this era, was punishable by death. As news of this revolt spread from one town to the next, other Sicilians rose up against their French occupiers, killing literally thousands, thus running them off the island, while crying out, Ã¢â¬Å"Ma fia! Ma fia! Ã¢â¬ Literally meaning, Ã¢â¬Å"My daughter! My daughter! Although neither theory has been proven, it is apparent that the basis of the name Mafia comes from some root of honor. The structure of the Mafia is originally based on a close-knit famiglia or family structure, where the eldest male, such as a grandfather who is wise in the ways of family operations based on heritage and traditions, is the capofamiglia, otherwise known as the head of the family or the boss Ã¢â¬â such as the Ã¢â¬Å"godfatherÃ¢â¬ . His second in command or right-hand man who acts as a Ã¢â¬Å"pseudo-bossÃ¢â¬ when the capofamilglia is away, is the sotto capo, or underboss, and could have originally been a brother or first born son. The capofamiglia may have one or more advisors, made up of close friends, brothers, or cousins, who aid him in any decision making regarding la famiglia, known as consigliere. Following the sotto capo are crews of Ã¢â¬Å"soldiersÃ¢â¬ , or capodecina, commanded by the sotto capo. The capodecina, literally meaning Ã¢â¬Å"head of tenÃ¢â¬ is selected by the capofamiglia, and usually coordinates units of soldiers made up of about ten people. Lastly are associates, who have no familial ties with the famiglia, through blood or initiation, but aid the famiglia through legal and illegal means. Associates usually consist of corrupt officials, such as police officers, judges, or religious heads, who help la famiglia by providing any important information. An associate, to la famiglia, is seen as nothing more than a tool, and may be discarded of easily if their services are not needed anymore. The only way to join the famiglia in the past was to be born or married into the family. As time went on, family of friends, as well as friends of friends, were admitted, but only after partaking in an initiation ceremony and swearing their allegiance to la famiglia, or else face the consequences of horrific mutilation or death. Initiation ceremonies included a variety of oaths and pledges, where potential members would carry out various acts to show their loyalty. Some acts included, but were not limited to, killing their own family members due to an unpaid debt to the famiglia, finding a Ã¢â¬Å"ratÃ¢â¬ within the famiglia and sending him a warning, such as mutilation or terrorizing their home life, or other heinous and illegal acts that would show devotion. Other means of initiation were ceremonies where a blood oath was implemented. In a testimony from the police interrogation of Leo Pellegrino, from the village of Sciacca, Agrigento province, 15 March 1876, Leo proceeded to explain the ceremony he was involved in: Ã¢â¬Å"Marsala tied my index finger of my right hand tightly with a string. He pricked the finger with a pin. The blood dripped on the image of a female saint. He burned the image, divided it into two portions and gave me one. We ground up our portions in our hands and then threw the result into the air. As part of the ceremony I swore that I would remain a member of the Societa that has as its capo Don Vito Vita, and its aim is to commit crimes against persons and property. I was told that the Societa has affiliates in other towns, each town with its own capo, and if an affiliate does not carry out his assigned duties he would be judged by the Societa and condemned to death. Then they taught me the mode of recognizing other affiliates. Ã¢â¬ Prior to Benito Mussolini becoming ItalyÃ¢â¬â¢s dictator during the Fascist movement, the Mafia was the one of the ways of providing protection and justice throughout Sicily without involving law enforcement and government officials. The Mafia would rid neighborhoods of vandals and criminals, while collecting fees for their services. What work they provided for the people would be repaid in money, goods, or by marrying into families so they would profit from farming lands. By the time Mussolini came to Sicily, the Mafia had acquired a great deal of power and respect from the citizens they protected and profited from. In 1924, when Mussolini visited Sicily, he was angered by the reception he received. The capofamiglias treated him as nothing more than a mere guest to their land, and told Mussolini that he was under their protection. Enraged by this notion, fearing opposition to his regime, the dictator avowed to suppress the Mafia by means of violence and honor. Mussolini names Ceaser Mori as Prefect, and ordered him to crack down with Ã¢â¬Å"steel and fireÃ¢â¬ against the Mafia. Because the MafiaÃ¢â¬â¢s power was equal to that of the State, an invasion of western Sicily took place, and during 1926-1928, 11,000 suspects in the Mafia were arrested. Ceaser Mori felt that the Mafia and Sicilian people were not one in the same. Rather, that the island had been suffering under the reign of terror known as the Mafia because the State was absent. Poor governing had created the menace known as Mafia, and that by eliminating that power, encouraged the people of Sicily to break away from unlawful oppression. He wanted the Mafia to appreciate that the State was stronger and wanted the Ã¢â¬Å"men of respect and honorÃ¢â¬ to be brought to their knees and be humble for their vanity and arrogance. During MoriÃ¢â¬â¢s suppressive action of rounding up any individual, proven or otherwise, under suspicion of Ã¢â¬Å"association for criminal purposes,Ã¢â¬ hundreds fled Sicily to other countries Ã¢â¬â as many as five hundred entered the United States, some illegally with help from family currently residing in the Unites States. Those arrested and unable to flee were found guilty and imprisoned. They were tortured in order to gain confessions, whether true or not, and violence towards individuals was common. Communities would be rounded up to ensure that those guilty would not flee the country. Innocent people would be caught up in the violence and tyranny with no ounce of concern from the State or other government officials. With Mussolini in control, Sicily faced a reign of terror. After capturing Don Vito Cascio Ferro, the Ã¢â¬Å"greatest capo the Mafia ever had,Ã¢â¬ Mori attempted to extract a confession from Don Vito, that he was, indeed, the capofamiglia of the Sicilian Mafia. Don Vito denied any accusation, regardless of the countless beatings Mori and his police committed. Finally, after having his legs clamped between a block of wood, Don Vito confessed to his involvement, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Mussolini announced to the nation shortly after that the Mafia was no more and no force would ever be able to revive it. Following the Fascist movement and World War II, the crime rate in Sicily soared in amongst the upheaval and chaos. Many criminals escaped from prison and bandits roamed the streets, wreaking havoc where ever they came. As Fascist members were disposed of, replacements were appointed, many of which turned out to be part of the Mafiosi, such as Calogero Vizzini and Giuseppe Genco Russo. They would present themselves as political dissidents and would become further desirable with their anti-communist position. The Minister of Agriculture, a communist, pushed for reforms where peasants would receive larger shares of produce and own land that was forced to be sold by owners of large estates. The Mafia had connections to many landowners and murdered several social reformists; however, they were unable to stop the process, and many landowners chose to sell their land to the Mafiosi, who offered more money than the government. After the war, the government poured money into rebuilding Sicily, where two Mafia connected officials took control of PalermoÃ¢â¬â¢s Office of Public Works. They gave out building permits to just five people, who were probably Mafia front men. Any construction companies unconnected with the Mafia were forced to pay protection fees, and many illegally constructed buildings were put up before the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s planning was finalized. This was the re-birth of the Sicilian Mafia. During the early 1960s, the first high-profile Mafia conflict occurred in post-war Italy. The Sicilian Mafia has always had a long history of violent rivalries, but this was the first to involve many lives, some of which were innocents. In December of 1962, a heroin shipment to America turned up missing, and when the Sicilian Mafia Commission could not decide who to blame, the La Barbera clan, one clan involved, took matters into their own hands. They murdered a Mafioso, or member, of the Greco clan whom they had suspicion of stealing heroin. Therein, triggering a war where many would lose their lives. In April 1963, several non-mafiosi were wounded during a shootout in Palermo. Two months later, six military officers and a policeman in Ciaculli were killed while trying to dispose of a car bomb. Because the conflict spread beyond Sicily and claimed several innocent lives, a crackdown commenced in which nearly two thousand arrests were made. Mafia activity fell as a result as clans disbanded and many Mafiosi went into hiding. The Commission was dissolved and would not reform until the late 1960s and early 1970s. During the 1970s, the Mafia in Sicily resumed its normal illicit business, and Corleonesi, the mafia family from the town of Corleone, slowly began growing in power and prestige under the brutal and ambitious leadership of Luciano Leggio. Luciano Leggio became the boss through simply shooting the previous boss, Michele Navarra. CorleonsiÃ¢â¬â¢s primary rivals were the bosses of various powerful Palermo Mafia Families. The Sicilian Mafia Commission was re-established in 1970, with Luciano Leggio as one of the three leaders, although his underboss, Salvatore Riina, represented him as he was in hiding in mainland Italy for various crimes committed. After Leggio was captured and murdered in 1974, Riina took over as boss and began winning over allies amongst other Mafia families. In 1978, Riina arranged the murders of Bontade and InserilloÃ¢â¬â¢s allies, the Reisi and Catania clansÃ¢â¬â¢ bosses. This caused the bosses of Palermo and their men to become isolated. After the murder of Stefano Bontade, another member of the commission, the Second Mafia War began. Hundreds of enemy Mafiosi and relatives were killed by each other, and even some of those who were traitorous in their own clans. In the end, the Corleonesi faction won, and Riina became widely known as the Ã¢â¬Å"boss of bosses. Ã¢â¬ By the early 1980s, the magistrates Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino began a campaign against the Sicilian Mafia. With the arrest of Tommaso Buscetta, a mafioso turned informant, Falcone and Borsellino compiled their testimonies and organized the Maxi Trial, which lasted twenty-eight months. Four hundred seventy-four mafiosi were put on trial, of which 342 were convicted. By 1992, the Italian Supreme Court confirmed these convictions. The Mafia retaliated violently, and in 1988, they murdered a Palermo judge and his son, a prosecutor and an anti-mafia businessman. Four years later, Falcone and Borsellino were killed by car bombs, and this led to a public outcry, along with a massive government crackdown, resulting in the arrest of Riina in 1993. Following RiinaÃ¢â¬â¢s arrest, the Mafia began a campaign of terror on mainland Italy. Tourist spots were attacked, such as places in Florence, Milan, and Rome, leaving ten dead and 93 injured, two churches bombed, and an anti-mafia priest shot dead. Leadership of the Mafia was held for a short time by Leoluca Bagarella, and then was passed to Bernardo Provenzano after Bagarella was captured in 1995. Provenzano ceased the violent campaign and replaced it with pax mafiosi, the quiet mafia, where it allowed the Mafia to slowly regain the power it once held. Provenzano halted the murders of state officials and informants. He felt that by not killing them and their families, it would encourage informants to retract their statements and testimonies and return to the famiglia. After eleven years of leadership, Provenzano was arrested in 2006.
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Legalized Gambling Essays - Genovese Crime Family, Murder, Inc. Legalized Gambling Through the years, gambling has become America's pastime. Over 60 million Americans make some sort of wager every day.1 When compared to other recreations(in billions of dollars) in 1990, gambling institutions made 2.2 more than magazine sales, 8.3 more than book sales, 20.9 more than theaters, and a whopping 21.8 more than movies.2 This number has increased to this high level because of the growth in the amount of legalized gambling establishments and the accessibility to these establishments, both of which increases the number of gamblers. The compulsive or pathological gambler affects society most. According to Stuart Winston, The compulsive gambler is the backbone of gambling. Without the compulsive gambler, there would be no Las Vegas, no Off Track Wagering. Two thirds of the race tracks in America would close. The attendance of sporting events would drop 50%, and T.V. wouldn't bother with sports beyond championship events.....The compulsive gambler bets a piece of his life everyday, and a piece of his family's. The other 45 million people who gamble are having fun.(Out of the 60 million who gamble every day)3 These gamblers often resort to crime to pay off their debts and anger. Even though legalized gambling has changed through time, and has been "accepted" in America today, it remains detrimental to society, and should not be legal anywhere. American gambling can be traced back to the early years of the nation. Different forms of gambling, such as lotteries, remained popular until 1890, when U.S. jurisdiction made lotteries and all other forms of gambling illegal by direct prohibition.4 Gambling had become more and more a "low life" thing to do. These low lifes, called "rowdies", would bet or take a bet on anything. Most tried to look different from everyone else by wearing thick imitation gold chains, a dyed black mustache, a velvet coat, and long hair. New York City alone had about 30,00 people earning a living from gambling in the 1890's. The casino's were plush and usually had a buffet with alcohol. The operation made a lot of money, most from cheating. Each casino would hire "agents" to come in and claim winning keno numbers, afterwards giving most of it back to the casino. Counterfeit money was also handed out to the few people who happened to win. Any protest from a loser and he would end up with a black eye. Oscar Handlin said, "An individual may sometimes take away substantial sums of money, but in the long run the banker must win."5 Essentially, gambling hurt society in the early years of America. For the next 25 years, gambling became unpopular again because of reports of cheating and changing American values. Anything thought of to be harmful to society became illegal. For example, alcohol became illegal by Prohibition. The reintroduction of gambling resulted in the return of corruption and fraud. By the mid 1920's, state after state abolished its anti-gambling laws. Gambling had become more and more accepted because of churches holding bingo sessions and legitimate racetracks being built. In 1931, gambling became totally legalized in Nevada to replace the money the state was getting from depleted ore rich mountains.6 Organized crime started to turn toward gambling as their main source of income after Prohibition ended in 1933. These criminals made most of their money bootlegging alcohol during Prohibition, so once alcohol prices went down, they needed another way to make a lot of money fast: gambling.7 Organized crime started getting more involved with gambling once Las Vegas started to boom. Bugsy Siegal, a half insane murderer who was sent to Nevada to enforce mob control of the race wire services, opened up the first hotel/casino in Las Vegas. His hotel, the Flamingo began a long period of gang involvement in Las Vegas. In 1947, the Desert Inn opened, run by a gang from Cleveland. A savage group of people, including the infamous Meyer Lansky and Lucky Luciano, established the Desert Inn in 1947. Lansky, the brains of this group, was a genius with numbers, while Luciano, the brute of the group, was a genius for finding Lansky. 1952 brought the opening of the Sahara by some run-out's from Oregon. The Sands, with Frank Sinatra as
Monday, October 21, 2019
Lars and the real girl Introduction Though the genre of the movie Lars and the real girl released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in 2007 can be defined as comedy-drama, the plot of the picture is based on real life psychological concepts. But for the enormously sympathetic attitude of the inhabitants of the town towards Lars and his delusions, the plot of the film seems plausible.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Lars and the real girl specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even though it produces comic effect upon the audience, the non-pharmacological intervention strategy implemented for treating delusional disorder in Lars, the main character of the film, is effective and corresponds to the results of the real life empirical research. Film concepts The development of the events in Lars and the real girl is based upon the delusional disorder of the main character Lars Lindstrom. Living in a garage and having difficulties with communicating wit h his relatives, co-workers and especially representatives of the opposite sex, Lars orders a lifelike doll Bianca from the online store and persists that she is a real girl (Lars and the real girl). It is significant that Lars actually has difficulties even in communicating with his doll as he refuses any kind of intimacy with her, making Bianca sleep in a separate room. LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ delusions were so strong that even at the end of the film he announces that Bianca dies instead of obtaining a more sensible view of the surrounding reality. On the one hand, Dagmar as the family doctor chooses the most appropriate intervention strategy for treating the main character by establishing confidential relationships with him. On the other hand, the community creates favorable conditions for LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ recovery by treating Bianca as a real person and even involving the doll into volunteer programs and employing her as a model in a clothing store. The sympathy of the inhabitants of the town is touching as they even attend BiancaÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral (Lars and the real girl). The communityÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude and feelings of Margo, LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ co-worker who is interested in Lars disregarding his obvious disorder, are the only details of the plot of the film which lack feasibility. As a rule, the individuals with delusional disorders are not met with open arms by the community. The sympathetic attitude of the inhabitants of the town not only creates plenty of comic situations, but also contributes to the atmosphere which was favorable for enhancing the effectiveness of LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment.Advertising Looking for research paper on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ case of delusional disorder with analysis of its main causes, symptoms and intervention strategies are central to the movie Lars and the real girl. Combining plausible data on psychological disorder and the enormously sym pathetic attitude of the community to LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ delusions, the author achieves the comic and dramatic affects at the same time. History of the concept of delusional disorder The concepts of paranoia and delusional disorders have been evolved over time and underwent a number of changes through continuing research and practical application of the findings. The term Ã¢â¬ËparanoiaÃ¢â¬â¢ was coined by ancient Greek and was combined of two stems which can be translated as Ã¢â¬ËbesidesÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËselfÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËmindÃ¢â¬â¢ (Grover et al, 2006, p. 62). This term was used for defining the conditions in which primarily cognition but not perception was disturbed. Kraepelin is known for making a significant contribution to the definition of the concept and distinguishing paranoia from other disorders. According to Kraepelin theories, the only behavioral changes in patients with delusional disorder were associated with their delusional beliefs, while the personality cou ld be preserved even if the illnesses lasted for several decades (Grover et al, 2006, p. 62). Kruger (1917) as one of KraepelinÃ¢â¬â¢s followers claimed that the system of delusions does not go beyond the realms of possibility and can be logically assumed. Bleuler (1920) broadened the definition of the concept, discussing the occurrence of hallucinations and emphasizing the appearance of paranoid symptoms in other conditions (Grover et al, 2006, p. 62). In 1987, however, this condition was renamed as delusional disorder due, while the term Ã¢â¬ËparanoiaÃ¢â¬â¢ was recognized as vague and inappropriately applied (Manschreck and Kahn 2006). In general, as it can be seen from the above mentioned historical overview, the cases of delusional disorders have been known since ancient times. Disregarding the chosen terminology and theoretical framework, the definition of this illness is based upon the disturbance of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s cognition while perception and the rest of persona l characteristics are preserved undisturbed. This definition is applicable to LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ case depicted in the movie under consideration, taking into account that the main character seems to be relatively normal but for the perception of the doll as a real girl.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Lars and the real girl specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Definition and classifications of delusional disorder Currently, the concept of delusional disorder is defined as the condition Ã¢â¬Å"characterized by the presence of one or more nonbizarre delusions and the relative absence of associated psychopathologyÃ¢â¬ (OÃ¢â¬â¢Conor et al, 2007, p. 183). Depending upon the content of the delusions and the corresponding patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior, the delusions are subdivided into several main types. The first type which is defined as persecutory comprises individuals who believe that they are malevolently treated. The second type is called somatic and includes patients who believe that they have a certain physical disorder. The third type of delusional disorder is defined as erotomanic and is associated with belief in love at a distance. The patients with the third type may persist that they are in relationship with celebrities. The fourth type is jealous and is associated with belief in an unfaithful partner. The fifth type is called a grandiose one and is associated with belief in enormous power or knowledge (OÃ¢â¬â¢Conor et al, 2007, p. 184). Implementing the above-mentioned classification for LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ case, it can be stated that the main character of the movie under consideration can be diagnosed as a peculiar modification of erotomanic type. As opposed to the primary definition, there is no distance between Lars and Bianca as the object of his dreams, but he intentionally creates it by refusing any kind of intimacy and making the doll live in a separate room. It might seem that the do ll is intended to solve LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ problems with communication and isolation, but experiencing difficulties even with Bianca, the main character demonstrates the level of his communicative problems and the strength of his belief that Bianca is a real girl. Main causes and symptoms of delusional disorder The main theories meant to explain the causes of delusional disorder can be subdivided into three main groups, including those of cognitive, psychophysiological and psychodynamic theories on occurrence, development, maintenance and content of delusional beliefs. Cognitive theories as the first subgroup explain the occurrence of delusions with cognitive deficit, inability to draw logical conclusions from the available information and the distorted thinking. The second subgroup focuses on abnormal perceptual experiences following the normal cognitive processes, explaining the occurrence of delusions with anomalous psychophysiological mechanisms involved into the perceptual process an d responsible for interpreting the information retrieved from the surrounding world.Advertising Looking for research paper on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third subgroup of psychodynamic theories places special emphasis upon motivational factors. It should be noted that all these theories are rather complementary than mutually exclusive. Malancharuvil (2004) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"a combination of factors could influence the formation and maintenance of delusionsÃ¢â¬ (p. 163). Apart from theoretical research concerning the origin and explanation of delusional disorder in general, when treating a certain patient, practitioners have to answer two main questions concerning the roots of disorder in every particular case and the reasons for the formation of the peculiar type of delusions in every single patient. Proper diagnosis and a comprehensive understanding of the underlying causes of the symptoms would allow selecting the most appropriate and effective intervention strategies. In the course of time, the formation of delusions in patients has been explained with genetic predisposition, cultural and personal experience. Regarding the genetic predispositions, reviewing the results of the latest studies of the issue, it is possible to find the evidence supporting the contradicting hypotheses on the role of genetics in the occurrence of delusions in individuals. For example, according to the results of the study by Morimoto et al (2002), Ã¢â¬Å"polymorphism of the DRD2, DRD3 and/or TH gene was part of the genetic basis underlying the hyperdopaminergic state that produced paranoid symptomsÃ¢â¬ (Grover et al, 2006, p. 69). On the other hand, the findings of Cardno and McGuffin (2006) prove that there is no sufficient evidence for proving the links between the genetic predispositions and formation of delusional disorders and further research along with wider samples are required for establishing these relationships. Regarding LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ case, it is hard to define whether the disorder of the main character has got the genetic roots. However, taking into account the subnormal behavior of his father who blames Lars in his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death and turns the lives of his sons to hell, it can be hypothesized that LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ father also had certain disorder which just was not diagnosed and investigated. Concerning the cultural background, empirical studies have proven that this factor does not have any significant impact upon the formation and maintenance of delusions. Grover et al (2007) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"the sociodemographic profile of delusional disorder is consistent across various culturesÃ¢â¬ (p. 462). Regarding the remaining factor of personal background, Maher (2005) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"The patient presents his particular delusion with content that is drawn from his past history or present circumstances because that is the kind of explanatory material available to himÃ¢â¬ (p. 141). Taking into account the results of the above-mentioned studies, it can be stated that the personal experience can be regarded as the most influential factor in development of delusional disorder in parti cular individuals. Taking into account the existing theories on the causes and content of delusions, it can be concluded that the unhealthy family atmosphere is the main cause of LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ delusions. His mother died during his birth and it preconditioned his fear of not only having children, but also having relationships with the opposite sex at all. Thus, though LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ genetic predisposition cannot be taken into consideration, his personal background has become the major cause of his delusional disorder. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment The existing treatment strategies are divided into pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions which are both applied by modern psychotherapists. The pharmacological approach which has been regarded is ineffective previously, has become popular among contemporary doctors and theoreticians. For instance, as it was cited in Grover et al (2006), Srinivasan et al (1994) found Ã¢â¬Å"good response to antipsychotic trea tment using trifluperazine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, and electroconvulsive therapyÃ¢â¬ (p. 70). As opposed to the past belief that delusional disorder cannot be treated through pharmacological interventions, the results of the recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this method. Manschreck and Khan (2006) concluded that Ã¢â¬Å"delusional disorder should not be considered a treatment-resistant condition; medication can be effective if the patient adheres to the treatment regimenÃ¢â¬ (p. 118). Disregarding the available evidence on the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, Dagmar as the family doctor decides on non-pharmacological treatment which appears to be sufficient for treating Lars. Recognizing the peculiarities of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition, the doctor in a movie not only does not reassure the patient in his delusions, but also supports his ideas and even offers the treatment for the doll, playing according to the rules of the patientÃ¢â¬ â¢s game. Though this approach may seem extraordinary and even comic to certain extent, this treatment corresponds to the results of the recent research. Taking into account the fact, that most patients with delusional disorder do not recognize their illness and refuse any treatment, it can be stated that supporting Lars in his delusions was the best way out for avoiding his confrontation. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor et al (2007) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"It seems crucial to initially adopt an accommodating and non-confrontational approachÃ¢â¬ (p. 187). This goal is successfully achieved by Dagmar who is supported by altruistic inhabitants of the town. Emphasizing the effectiveness of non-pharmacological approach, Malancharuvil (2004) noted that Ã¢â¬Å"Instead of considering the delusional thought as a thought problem, it should be examined as an affective problem that is intellectually defendedÃ¢â¬ (p. 167). The small detail that Lars always carries a baby blanket with him proves that the chara cter looks for protection and tries to hide from the surrounding. Detailing the treatment strategies, Malancharuvil (2004) defined the main stages of working through delusional thinking, namely establishing therapeutic alliance with the patient, modifying defensiveness, connecting to core experience, restructuring and consolidation. All these stages were passed by Dagmar in treating Lars, though some of them were completed in a rather untraditional way by involving the community into the process of treatment. On the one hand, the fact of LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ recovery may seem doubtful, because he returns to reality by announcing that Bianca dies. Still, the facts that the patient gets rid of his delusions and has a love affair with his co-worker, a real girl prove that DagmarÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment is effective. The communityÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude to LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ delusions and his love affair with Margo can be regarded as an important component of the intervention strategy which was significant for LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ recovery. Conclusion In general, it can be concluded that disregarding the peculiarities of the genre of drama-comedy, the plot of the movie Lars and the real girl has sufficient theoretical basis on treating the patients with delusional disorder and can be regarded as plausible. DagmarÃ¢â¬â¢s non-pharmacological approach in establishing the non-confrontational relationship with the patient, defining the causes of the delusions and restructuring them may produce a comic effect, but were effective for modifying LarsÃ¢â¬â¢ defensiveness and returning him to reality. Reference List Aubrey, S., Cameron, J., Kimmel, S. (Producers) and Gillespie, C. (Director). (2007). Lars and the real girl [Motion picture]. United States: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Cardno, A. and McGuffin, M. (2006). Genetics and delusional disorder. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 24: 257-276. Grover S, Gupta N, Kumar S. (2006). Delusional disorders: An overview. Journal of German Psychology, 9: 62-73. Gro ver, S., Biswas, P., and Avasthi, A. (2007). Delusional disorder: Study from North India. Psychiatry and Neurosciences, 61: 462-470. Maher, B. (2005). Delusional thinking and cognitive disorder. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 40 (3): 136-146. Malancharuvil, J. (2004). Delusional thinking: A thought or affective disorder? A paradigm for working through delusional thinking in Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 58 (2): 162-173. Manschreck, T. and Khan, N. (2006). Recent advances in the treatment of delusional disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51(2): 114-119. OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor, K., Stip, E., Pelissier, M., Aardema, F. (2007). Treating delusional disorder: A comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and attention placebo control. 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